Explanations of terms from the field of provenance research and Proveana's four research contexts.

An overview page with all terms is also available.


Wartime losses

  • Cultural goods displaced as a result of war

Woermann Line

Woermann Line (Afrikanische Dampfschiffs-Actiengesellschaft Woermann-Linie) was a Hamburg-based shipping company that carried passengers and cargo to the African colonies. It was a registered company from 1885 to 1941. Its associated trading company, founded back in 1837, had already sent its first sailing ships to West Africa in 1849 and established its first trading posts in what is now Cameroon and Gabon in the 1860s. After introducing its first liner service to West Africa in 1882, German East Africa Line (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie) was founded in 1890 to extend its coverage to other parts of Africa. During the war against the Nama and Herero peoples, the shipping company transported people and equipment in its own vessels and additionally chartered ships to support the →“Protection Force” (Schutztruppe). The company still operates today as C. Woermann with branches in several African countries. (SF)

  • Cultural goods and collections from colonial contexts